Science on Religion

Exploring the nexus of culture, mind & religion

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Religion & Public Life
  1. How the religious typology groups compare
    Use this tool to compare the religious typology groups on key topics and demographics.
  2. Religious typology quiz
    Are you a Sunday Stalwart? Solidly Secular? Or somewhere in between? Take our quiz to find out which one of the religious typology groups is your best match and see how you compare with our nationally representative survey of more than 4,000 U.S. adults.
  3. Appendix B: Methodology
    The American Trends Panel (ATP), created by Pew Research Center, is a nationally representative panel of randomly selected U.S. adults recruited from landline and cellphone random-digit-dial surveys. Panelists participate via monthly self-administered web surveys. Panelists who do not have internet access are provided with a tablet and wireless internet connection. Most of the data in […]
  4. Appendix A: About the religious typology
    The religious typology divides the public into seven groups based on their answers to 16 questions that measure their religious and spiritual beliefs, their engagement with their faith, and the religious and nonreligious sources of meaning and fulfillment in their lives. The typology groups are created using cluster analysis, a statistical technique that identifies homogeneous […]
  5. Acknowledgments
    This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at Research Team Becka A. Alper, Research Associate Rich Morin, Senior Editor Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher Philip Schwadel, Senior Researcher Kiana […]
  6. 5. The demographic characteristics of religious typology groups
    Although demographic indicators – including race and ethnicity, age, gender, and education – were not used as factors to create the typology groups, there are clear patterns across the seven groups. The religious typology groups roughly move from oldest to youngest when going from the most to least religious. Sunday Stalwarts and God-and-Country Believers tend […]
  7. 4. Politics and policy
    Sunday Stalwarts and God-and-Country Believers tend to be Republicans, while Religion Resisters, the Solidly Secular and the Spiritually Awake are generally Democrats. The other two groups are somewhat more mixed in their partisanship. These patterns also are reflected in differences among the typology groups on a variety of political and social issues. When it comes […]
  8. 3. Sources of meaning and community involvement
    For every religious typology group, spending time with family ranks among the most meaningful aspects of life. But people also find fulfillment in many other places, including their careers, hobbies, friends, pets and religious faith. And the typology groups differ on these questions in a variety of ways. For example, the highly religious typology groups […]
  9. 2. Attitudes toward organized religion
    The highly religious typology groups – Sunday Stalwarts, God-and-Country Believers and the Diversely Devout – tend to have positive views of churches and other religious institutions. Majorities in each of these groups say that religious organizations strengthen morality, bring people together and do more good than harm. By contrast, the nonreligious groups – the Solidly […]
  10. 1. Religious and spiritual practices and beliefs
    The religious beliefs and practices of Americans differ greatly across religious typology groups. At one end of the spectrum are the Sunday Stalwarts. Overwhelming majorities of these devout and religiously traditional Americans say they attend church regularly, pray on a daily basis and place high importance on religion in their lives. God-and-Country Believers and the […]


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